Rebelling against the nations is forbidden Even Under Persecution

Rashi, Biblical and Talmudic commentator (1040-1105)
“And G-d spoke to Moses and Aaron, and He commanded them regarding the children of Israel and regarding Pharaoh, king of Egypt” (Exodus 6:13). He commanded them to treat Pharaoh respectfully.

“And all of these servants of yours will come down to me and bow to me, saying, go out, you and all the people that are at your feet” (Exodus 11:8). He mentioned “servants” only out of respect for the king, for in the end it was Pharaoh himself who came down and said, get up and leave from among my people.
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Rabbi Yehuda Loew, Rabbi of Prague, known as Maharal (1512-1609)
“I placed an oath upon you, O daughters of Jerusalem” (Song of Songs 2:7) not to go up to the Holy Land en masse. Under what circumstances did He make them swear? He made them swear in the Generation of Martyrdom (Midrash Rabbah). Even if the nations torture the Jews to death, they are not allowed to violate the oaths and leave exile.
(Netzach Yisroel 24)

Rabbi Avraham Galante, Italian Kabbalist (16th century)
In 1536, when the Portuguese Inquisition was launched, Jews became subject to severe persecution and public burnings. The Jews of Portugal saw an opportunity to take over the kingdom, but one old Jewish sage used a Kabbalistic method to ask G-d if this was the right thing to do. G-d replied with the words of the Song of Songs 2:7, “I place an oath upon you not to arouse or awaken…” – the very verse quoted by the Talmud as the source for the Three Oaths, one of which is not to rebel against the Holy One, blessed is He. As a result, the plan to revolt was scrapped.
(Zechus Avos, Avos 1:10)

Rabbi Yaakov Emden, German scholar and writer (1697-1776)
We will not repeat this mistake and do what the foolish and impatient among us did, who were convinced several times by false messiahs, and we became the laughingstock of our neighbors, who mock our waiting for the messiah. Indeed, when the foolish people cause trouble, all of us suffer the consequences. Therefore we have taken great precaution lest we be overtaken by desire for freedom, not to act too quickly and believe anything like fools. Rather, the believer does not hurry and does not arouse the love before it is desired. Even if our local rulers are harsh with us, we will not leave our place. Even if we sit in the darkness of exile for a very long time, G-d is our light. His word is the guiding candle for our feet and lights up our path. We will not try to free ourselves from the shackles of our bondage on our own, until G-d sends the messiah and sets us free.
(Sefer Hashimush 76b)

Rabbi Tzadok Hakohein Rabinowitz of Lublin (1823-1900)
The Jews were made to swear not to come up “as a wall” to the Holy Land, and not to rebel against the nations. Now, what was the purpose of these oaths? If it was not the right time determined by G-d, of course they would not be able to accomplish anything!

The answer is that the Jewish people might think that they are fit to be redeemed because they have been strong and steadfast as a wall to keep G-d’s commandments. Therefore the Torah tells them: do not try to go up with the force of a wall – with the merit of your Torah and mitzvos. They also might think that the nations have dropped to a low level of wickedness, which would trigger the redemption of the Jews. Therefore it says “they should not rebel against the nations” – rebel thinking that the nations deserve it. The oaths are teaching us that since the end of exile was not revealed, and since G-d’s will was not manifest, none of us knows whether we deserve to be redeemed now because of them.
(Pri Tzadik Va’eschanan 1)