Rabbi Moshe Sofer, Rabbi of Bratislava, known as Chasam Sofer (1762-1839)
Jews have always shown respect to governments under which they lived, even those that mistreated them. Egypt enslaved the Jews, yet when the Jews stood at the Sea and the Egyptian army fired at them, the Jews did not fight back. This was despite the fact that they far outnumbered the Egyptians, and the Torah makes a point of telling us that they were armed (Exodus 13:18). The Jews refused to kill the Egyptians themselves, since they had served as their hosts in time of need. Instead they prayed to G-d to save them (ibid. 14:10). All the more so that we must respect our current host nation, which treats us so kindly, and seek their welfare always.
(Drashos Chasam Sofer Shvat 5588, speaking in 1828 at a gathering of rabbis to celebrate the sixtieth birthday of the Emperor Franz Josef I)

Rabbi Shmuel Binyomin Sofer, rav of Bratislava, known as Ksav Sofer (1815-1871)
During their Egyptian slavery, the Jews lived in concentrated areas and could have organized themselves to rebel against their masters. They were capable warriors, as we see from their later victories over Amalek, Sichon, Og and the Canaanites. Yet they accepted their exile willingly.
During the Babylonian exile, and continuing under the Median and Persian empires, the Jews never had any thought of rebelling and returning to their land by force. Indeed, the prophet Zechariah (4:6) declared, “Not by might and not by power, but by My spirit, said the L-rd of hosts.”

Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch Lehren, Jewish community leader in Amsterdam (1784-1853)
[Editor’s note: Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch Lehren was the leader of Kehillas Yereim in Amsterdam and president of the Kollel of Rabbi Meir Baal Haness, the institution that distributed funds to European Jews who lived in Jerusalem and studied Torah. In 1810 he founded Pekidim V’amarcalim, an organization to manage those funds. The following is taken from a letter he wrote together with his colleague Rabbi Eliyahu Avraham Prinz and sent to all the gedolim of his time, including the Ksav Sofer, Rabbi Yehuda Asad, the Yitav Lev, the Maharam Shick and others. It can be found in the first chapter of the Responsa of Riva, Rabbi Yoel ben Eliezer Ungar of Paks, Hungary. The letter was written in reaction to a conference of Reform rabbis in Braunschweig, Germany at which they repudiated belief in the messiah and the redemption from exile. Rabbi Lehren wrote that they adopted this heresy thinking it would win them equal rights in Germany, but this was wrong. On the contrary, our emunah will find favor in the eyes of the gentiles, since we are loyal to them; our messianism is confined to religious belief and will never lead to us taking action on our own.]

We and all our Jewish brothers are believers, children of believers, in G-d and the Torah of Moses His servant, written and oral, and we believe with perfect faith in the coming of the messiah, as foreseen by the prophets of G-d. As the Rambam says, this is one of the fundamentals of our emunah.

We also believe with perfect faith in the mitzvah written in Scripture (Proverbs 24:21): “Fear G-d, my son, and the king; and do not mingle with changers.” We also believe in what The Talmudic Sages say (Kesubos 111a) that one of the oaths that G-d made Israel swear is not to rebel against the nations of the world, and we are not permitted to take any action to come to the Promised Land. Even if we had 1,200,000 soldiers bearing swords and trained in warfare, we would not be allowed to ascend and conquer Eretz Yisroel; rather we must wait and hope until G-d desires to redeem us and bring us to the inheritance of our forefathers, and all the nations will see that the L-rd of Hosts is our Redeemer.

Rabbi Hillel Lichtenstein of Kolomyia  (1814-1891)
Now, the Jews, the people of G-d who believe in the Torah given by G-d, even if there come a time that their population grows tremendously in their exile, until they are a vast people, with great wealth, trained in warfare, such that they know for certain that if they rise up against the governments they live under, they will win – still the fear of Heaven is upon them and not one of them will lift a hand against their governments. For King Solomon warned three times not to do that: “Fear G-d, my son, and the king, and do not mingle with revolutionaries” (Proverbs 24:21); “I keep the word of the king, and the matter of the oath of G-d” (Koheles 8:2); “I adjure you, daughters of Jerusalem, not to arouse or awaken the love” (Song of Songs 2:7). Therefore, they serve their leaders and pay taxes as always, despite the fact that they have the ability to free themselves.
(Maskil El Dal )

And when Israel saw this [what?], they chose to scatter themselves in all four corners of the earth, so that the nations might see that they had no thought of waging any more wars with them, and that they would not emerge from the exile until the messiah comes. And even if during that time they have some mighty men, still they will not wage war against the nations, for this is what Solomon, the king and prophet, made them swear by the name of G-d when he said, “I have adjured you, daughters of Jerusalem, not to arouse or awaken the love before it is desired” (Song of Songs 2:7). Behold, he said to the daughters of Jerusalem: If you be in exile among the nations, do not arouse or awaken with them any war because of the love of Eretz Yisroel, until it is desired – until it is the will and desire of G-d to do so, and He sends you the messiah, just as He sent Moses to Egypt to say, “So said G-d: I have surely remembered you” (Exodus 3:16). Then they will know that it is the will of the Holy One, blessed is He, that they should gather themselves from all the four corners of the world and become a great and powerful nation, to take their land away from the Ishmaelites. The prophet Isaiah expressed amazement at them and said, “Who are these who fly like clouds?” (60:8) “Who bore me these?” (49:21) “Can a land have birthpangs in one day…for Zion has had birthpangs and born her children” (66:8). And since it is so, all of Israel has decided not to study warfare anymore, even to assist one nation against another, unless it is the will of their kings under whom they live. And each one prays in the land where he lives that G-d grant peace and success to the king who rules over that land… And since Israel saw this, they did not seek, nor did their soul desire, to go out of exile until the time when G-d desires it.
(Be’er Hagolah, Chapter 25, Section 5)

Rabbi Sholom Dov Ber Schneersohn, Lubavitcher Rebbe, Russia (1866-1920)
Our religious brothers know that they are under the yoke of exile and must be submissive in any situation. For even when the Jews had among them people who had connections with the leaders of nations, they acted humbly, knowing that they were in exile under another people, and that they must bear the yoke of exile, for that is the will of G-d to atone for our sins. G-d wants the exile to continue until He has mercy on us and redeems us, may it be soon. Therefore, even when Jews were treated harshly at various times of history, even when they were persecuted and expelled, they remained submissive and found a way to survive, just as a soft, flexible plant survives a powerful storm.
(Kuntres Umayan Mibeis Hashem, p. 49)