Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch Chajes, Rabbi of Kalish, Poland (1805-1855)
Ever since Jeremiah the prophet commanded, “Seek the welfare of the nation to which I have exiled you” (29:7), and the oaths in Talmud Kesubos 111a went into effect, forbidding the Jewish people from going up as a wall or rebelling against the nations, the Jewish people has remained faithful. We have been scattered among the nations in all parts of the world for a long time, under the rule of various nations and religions, and never has it been heard that we should be disloyal to our government.
(Kol Sifrei Maharatz Chajes, Toras Haneviim, in a letter to the Chasam Sofer)

When Pharaoh said, “Come, let us deal wisely with them, lest they multiply and when there is a war, they will join our enemies…” he was falsely suspecting the Jews of being traitors, wishing to join the enemy and leave his land without permission. But we never had such a thought, nor will we ever. It is a tradition from our forefathers not to rebel against the government, until G-d sends his angel before us to bring us out of exile miraculously. Then even the ruler or minister will be forced to admit that G-d is righteous and His hand did this.

And so it will be with the future redemption for which we are now waiting: when G-d so desires, all of mankind will ascend to a high level of understanding, such that there will be no need for a rebellion, nor will there be war or weapons between nations, as the prophets foretold. But before the messiah comes, G-d forbid for us to lift up our hands against the king and violate his law.
(Kol Sifrei Maharatz Chajes, Toras Haneviim )

Rabbi Yosef Shaul Natanson, author of the responsa Shoel Umeishiv (1808-1875)
When Pharaoh feared that the Jews would join his enemies (Exodus 1:10), why was his strategy to make them slaves? Wouldn’t that make them even more likely to hate the Egyptians and fight against them? The answer is that Pharaoh knew that G-d had commanded the Jews not to rebel against their king, and that He had implanted into their nature the inclination to accept subjugation. This is the meaning of the oath (Kesubos 111a) not to rebel against the nations – that He adjured them and made acceptance of the exile a part of their nature. Therefore, as long as the Jews were free and independent, Pharaoh feared them, but with the hard hand of taskmasters over them, they would realize that this was a decree of exile, and they would wait patiently for G-d to redeem them.

This character trait – submissiveness and unwillingness to fight – is so deeply implanted in the Jewish nature that even when G-d commands a Jew to fight, it is hard for him. Thus when G-d first told Moses to go to Pharaoh, Moses responded, “Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh, and that I should take out the Children of Israel from Egypt?” How could it be that Moses refused to obey G-d? The answer is that Moses understood from G-d’s initial command, “Take out the Children of Israel from Egypt” that he and the other Jews were to escape from Egypt using their own practical means. Moses knew that the Jews by nature would not want to take any action; he would have to do it all on his own. Therefore he said, “Who am I that I should undertake this alone?” G-d then clarified, “I will be with you” – I will perform the redemption, and it will not be necessary for you or anyone else to take any independent action. Even when the time came to leave Egypt, the Jews did not leave until Pharaoh commanded them to do so (Exodus 12:31): “Get up and go out from amidst my people!” And at the shores of the sea, Moses assured them (Exodus 14:14), “G-d will fight for you and you will be silent!”
(Divrei Shaul on Exodus, p. 48)

Rabbi Shmuel Binyomin Sofer, rav of Bratislava, known as Ksav Sofer (1815-1871)
Throughout Jewish history, Jews never rebelled against the king, even a king who was cruel to them.